The Augusta County-Staunton-Waynesboro area lies primarily within the Valley and Blue Ridge Physiographic Province which is characterized by gently rolling and hilly valleys, as well as gradual mountain slopes.
The extreme eastern edge of the County is within the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province, which is distinguished by sharp mountain peaks. Elevations range from 1,050 to 1,800 feet above sea level in the Shenandoah Valley. The Blue Ridge Mountains and the Allegheny Mountains have many peaks which exceed 3,500 feet above sea level. The level areas of the County are located in the vicinity of Fishersville, Middlebrook, Spottswood, Stuarts Draft, Swoope, Waynesboro and Weyers Cave.
Soils in the Shenandoah Valley range from carbonate and shale soils to alluvial soils along rivers and streams. Colluvial soils derived from the weathering of sandstone and shale are found in the foothills paralleling the Valley. The Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains are covered with shallow, rocky, excessively drained soils. The predominant geological structure underlying the Augusta County-Staunton-Waynesboro area is a complex formation of limestone and calcareous shale, with small amounts of sandstone and chert.